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The Constitution of Prussia





Prussia had several Constitutions. Most documents about Prussia are not open for public viewing. The following are excerpts from the Prussian Constitution of January 31, 1850:

Article 1. All territories of the Monarchy in their present borders constitute the ground of the Prussian State.
Article 4. All Prussians are equal in the eyes of the law. No class privileges are permitted.
Article 5. All personal freedoms are guaranteed.
Article 6. All homes are unassailable.
Article 9. Property is sacred.
Article 12. The freedom of religious believes and the formation of religious organizations is guaranteed.
Article 15. All religious organizations determine and administer their affairs independently.
Article 19. Special laws regulate civil marriage.
Article 20. Science and its instruction are free.
Article 27. Every Prussian has the right to express free his thoughts verbally, written, printed and in picture.
Article 33. The secrecy of mail is sacred.
Article 70. Every Prussian has with the age of 25 the right to vote.
Article 71. For every 250 Prussians one Representative has to be elected.
Article 72. The elected Representatives will elect the Members of Parliament.
Article 86. All judicial power is executed in the Name of the King by independent only the law following courts.



Excursion



FREDERICK THE GREAT
born: 1712
King: 1740 - 1786





FREDERICK THE GREAT's answer to an inquiry in 1740, whether or not a catholic can acquire all citizen rights: All religions are equal and good, if only the people who teach them would be honest people. And if Turks and Heathen want to live in Prussia, we want to build them mosques and churches. In Prussia every one can believe what he wants,  if he is only honest. Catholics, Lutherans, Reformers, Jews and many other Christian sects live in Prussia peacefully side by side. If a ruler is guided by wrong eagerness and favors one of these religions, immediately it will create parties and strong disputes. Gradually persecutions will start and the members of the persecuted religions will leave Prussia. Thousands of Prussians would leave the country and enrich our neighbors with their knowledge, diligence and by population. I am neutral between Rome and Geneva. Only so I can control the religious hate and remind the parties to remain peaceful. I try to keep them united by telling them that they are all Prussians, and that one can love a man in a red robe as well as one in a gray dress.

FREDERICK THE GREAT addressing the court December 11, 1779 in the process against the miller Arnold: You have to know, that the smallest farmer just as well as the beggar is a human being as His Majesty The King of Prussia, and has to obey the law. Because all people are equal in the court of law, may it be a prince or a farmer, regardless of the rank in the society, justice must prevail. And where in the provinces judges make their own laws, the judges will feel the power of the Prussian King. Then judges who practice injustice are more dangerous and worse than a gang of thieves. One can protect oneself against thieves. But judges who practice their evil passions under the umbrella of justice leave you unprotected. They are worse than the biggest rogues in the world and deserve double punishment. I want that in Prussia, everyone, may he be of high rank or unimportant, receives the same and prompt justice. I want an impartial justice in Prussia.

FREDERICK THE GREAT in letters to Voltaire: I am shocked by the barbaric custom to torture delinquents before the death sentence is executed. In Prussia torture is totally abolished. In Prussia a death sentence cannot be executed before a higher tribunal of judges has studied the case and confirmed the conclusion and sentencing of the lower court. It is better to let a delinquent live than to send an innocent person to death. The thing is, generally nothing should be destroyed.


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The Governments of Prussia 1848 - 1945






Prussian Prime Ministers (Ministerpraesidenten)
Count Adolf Heinrich v. Arnim-Boitzenburg (March 19 to29, 1848);
Ludolf Camphausen (March 29 to June 20, 1848);
Rudolf v. Auerswald (June 25 to September 21, 1848);
v. Pfuel (September 21 to Nov. 1, 1848);
Count v. Brandenburg (Nov. 1, 1848 to Nov. 6, 1850);
Lord Otto v. Manteuffel (Dec. 4, 1850 to Nov. 6, 1858);
Earl Karl Anton von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (Nov. 6, 1858 to March 11, 1862);
Prince Adolf zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen (March 11 to Sep. 23, 1862);
Earl Otto v. Bismarck (Sep. 23, 1862 to Dec. 21, 1872);
Count v. Roon (Jan. 1 to Nov. 9, 1873);
Earl Otto v. Bismarck (Nov. 9, 1873 to March 18, 1890);
Count v. Caprivi (March 20, 1890 to March 23, 1892);
Count Botho zu Eulenburg (March 23, 1892 to Oct. 26, 1894);
Earl Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfuerst (Oct. 29, 1894 to Oct. 17, 1900);
Earl Bernhard v. Buelow (Oct. 17, 1900 to July 14, 1909);
Theobald v. Bethmann Hollweg (July 14, 1909 to July 14, 1917
Michaelis (July 14 to Nov. 1, 1917); Earl v. Hertling (Nov. 1, 1917 to Oct. 3, 1918).
After World War I:
Hirsch (Social Democrat) and Stroebel (Independent): Nov. 14, 1918 to March 20, 1919
Hirsch (Social Democrat): March 25, 1919 to March 26, 1920
Otto Braun (Social Democrat): March 29, 1920 to March 10, 1921
Stegerwald (Center Party): April 21 to Nov. 1, 1921
Otto Braun (Social Democrat): Nov. 7, 1921 to Jan. 23,1925
Marx (Center Party): Feb. 18 to Feb. 20, 1925
Otto Braun (Social Democrat): April 4, 1925 to July 20, 1932
After World War I Prussia was the only democratic functioning state of the dismantled Kaiser Empire. In Germany the leaders could not cope with the introduced democracy. Some of them considered the past war period a recovery time for continuing the war with new strength. The German Reichs-President von Hindenburg reigned despotic like a king, releasing and appointing chancellors (Prime Ministers) as he felt. On
June 1, 1932, he appointed Franz von Papen to be the German Reichs-Chancellor. Only 49 days later on July 20, 1932 , with the support of Reichs-President von Hindenburg, Reichs-Chancellor von Papen overthrew in a coup d'etat the Prussian Government. Von Papen appointed himself immediately to Reichs-Commissioner for Prussia and presented Prussia as gift to the Nazis. They promised Hitler an early and victorious election.  Hitler was elected on January 30, 1933, and appointed by von Hindenburg to be the Reichs-Chancellor. Hitler rewarded  von Papen with the position of his deputy.
Hermann Goering (Nazi and appointed by Hitler as Prussian Prime Minister): April 11, 1933 to May 8, 1945

What the Nazis started 1932, the Allied Powers finished 1947:
February 25, 1947 (2 years after World War II) the Allied Control Commission declared by decree Prussia dissolved (By International Law probably not valid!). The indigenous people of the original Prussian tribal lands were displaced and Prussia was divided between Russia, Poland, East Germany (GDR), and the Bundesrepublik (Federal Republic of Germany) without plebiscite.


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